Effects of Dietary and lifestyle management on type 2 diabetes development among Ethnic minority adults living in the UK: A generational shift

Ahmed, Arif, Tsiami, Amalia ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1122-4814 and Khan, Hafiz T.A. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1817-3730 (2022) Effects of Dietary and lifestyle management on type 2 diabetes development among Ethnic minority adults living in the UK: A generational shift. In: 12th International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences 2022, 1-3 June 2022, Lyon, France.

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Abstract

Non-communicable diseases (NCD) contribute to most health problems worldwide and are the main drivers for causing disability (Global Burden of Disease Study, 2017). An increase in disability globally was observed due to metabolic conditions such as type-2 diabetes (T2D) (Global Burden of Disease Study, 2017). Besides disability, diabetes is today also one of the top ten causes of death worldwide (Ahmed et al., 2020); thus, it has become a common disease which needs health emergencies. A rapid burden of diabetes in adults is observed in the UK and the prevalence is increasing over time (Diabetes UK, 2019). The higher risk group of T2D includes ethnic populations such as South Asian or Black Afro-Caribbean people (Diabetes UK, 2019).

Jointly genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors related to T2D (Prasad and Groop, 2015; Ahmed et al., 2020; World Health Organization, 2021). Environmental means modifiable factors include dietary behaviour and physical activity (Prasad and Groop, 2015). Ethnic minorities such as South Asians genetically carry fewer β-cells, and over the life-course failure of those cells leads to diabetes (Bhopal, 2013). Thus, to reduce CVD risk and improve health in adults, prevention of T2D demands priority by enhancing a healthy diet and lifestyle globally (Hu, 2011). It is because more than half of the T2D cases are possible to prevent or delay by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and dietary habits (Diabetes UK, 2019).

In general, unhealthy dietary habits triggered the global burden of disease (GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators, 2017), causing diabetes, cardiovascular disease ("CVD"), and certain cancers. Dietary habits are dynamic and are influenced by individual choice, health benefits, and culture, where the people grow and live for a long time (Pieroni et al., 2007). Thus, the choice of fruits and vegetables, amount of daily consumption of those, and the cooking style differ due to acculturation and affect T2D diabetes prevention and development.

The changing pattern of such modifiable factors like dietary behaviour for different generations in ethnic populations is unclear yet in literature, particularly in the UK, as some evidence exists for the immigrant population in the US. Research in the US demonstrated that an unhealthy dietary habit such as low fruit and high fast food existed due to long-time acculturation in Latina immigrants in the USA (Kasirye et al., 2005). Acculturated first-generation Chinese Americans consume more sweets, fatty foods, and soft drinks, and thus were advised to reduce such unhealthy diets; while the second generation was advised to follow a healthy lifestyle including more fruit and vegetable consumption (Lv and Cason, 2004).

The fourth prominent risk factor for mortality worldwide is deemed as sedentary activity (Ranasingheet al., 2013). A lower level of physical activity was stated by South Asians born population outside the UK (1st generation) than those born inside the UK (2nd generation). This difference can be partly explained by cultural differences (Williams et al., 2011). Past studies show that North African, South Asian, African Caribbean, and Mexican immigrants in Europe are less prone to taking sufficient physical exercise due to acculturation and are more likely to be overweight and obese and developing diabetes (Gilbert and Khokhar, 2008; Gualdi-Russo et al., 2014).

Socio-cultural factors influence the likelihood of becoming a smoker or drinker (Best et al., 2001). Among the Indians, Pakistanis, and Black Caribbeans, smoking and alcohol drinking habits are reported more by the second generation than the first (Wang and Li, 2019). Either active or passive smoking (Zhang et al., 2011) and alcohol drinking enhance the earlier onset of T2D (Johnson, Bazargan and Cherpitel, 2001).

Despite such importance, to the author's knowledge and research, no study focused on the generational effect on the onset of T2D in dietary and healthy lifestyle habits in Asian, African, and Caribbean adults living in the UK. Thus, the study aims to investigate whether these changing dietary and lifestyle habits affect the onset of T2D in terms of generations. Moreover, whether generation of Asian, African and Caribbean, living in the UK differs in terms of onset of T2D.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Lecture)
Subjects: Hospitality and tourism > Culinary arts
Hospitality and tourism > Culinary arts > Food studies
Medicine and health > Health promotion and public health
Medicine and health > Nutrition
Depositing User: Amalia Tsiami
Date Deposited: 23 May 2022 17:39
Last Modified: 01 Jun 2022 02:45
URI: http://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/9102

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