Tsikritzi, Roussa, Moynihan, Paula J., Gosney, Margot, Allen, Victoria and Methven, Lisa (2014) The effect of macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits on their sensory properties and on hedonic liking of older people. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94 (10). pp. 2040-2048. ISSN 0022-5142
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Under-nutrition in older adults is widespread. Oral nutritional supplement beverages (ONS) are prescribed, yet consumption by older people is often insufficient. A variety of supplement formats may improve nutrient intake. This study developed protein and micro-nutrient fortified biscuits and evaluated their sensory attributes and liking by older people. Two micro-nutrient strategies were taken, to match typical ONS and to customise to the needs of older people.
Oat biscuits and gluten-free biscuits developed contained over 12% protein and over 460 kcal 100 g−1. Two small (40 g) biscuits developed to match ONS provided approximately 40% of an ONS portion of micro-nutrients and 60% of macro-nutrients; however, the portion size was considered realistic whereas the average ONS portion (200 mL) is excessive. Biscuits developed to the needs of older adults provided, on average, 18% of the reference nutrient intake of targeted micro-nutrients. Sensory characteristics were similar between biscuits with and without micro-nutrient fortification, leading to no differences in liking. Fortified oat biscuits were less liked than commercial oat biscuits, partly attributed to flavour imparted by whey protein fortification.
Macro- and micro-nutrient fortification of biscuits could provide an alternative fortified snack to help alleviate malnutrition in older adults.
|Additional Information:||This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in anymedium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||older people; nutrient fortification; biscuits; cookies; sensory; supplement|
|Subjects:||Medicine and health > Nutrition|
|Depositing User:||Rod Pow|
|Date Deposited:||09 Feb 2015 16:27|
|Last Modified:||02 Feb 2017 10:36|
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