Advanced therapy medicinal products for age-related macular degeneration; scaffold fabrication and delivery methods

Khalili, Hanieh ORCID:, Kashkoli, Hamid Heidari, Weyland, David Edward, Pirkalkhoran, Sama and Grabowska, Wiktoria Roksana (2023) Advanced therapy medicinal products for age-related macular degeneration; scaffold fabrication and delivery methods. Pharmaceuticals, 16 (4). p. 620.

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Retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represent a leading cause of blindness, resulting in permanent damage to retinal cells that are essential for maintaining normal vision. Around 12% of people over the age of 65 have some form of retinal degenerative disease. Whilst antibody-based drugs have revolutionised treatment of neovascular AMD, they are only effective at an early stage and cannot prevent eventual progression or allow recovery of previously lost vision. Hence, there is a clear unmet need to find innovative treatment strategies to develop a long-term cure. The replacement of damaged retinal cells is thought to be the best therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with retinal degeneration. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are a group of innovative and complex biological products including cell therapy medicinal products, gene therapy medicinal products, and tissue engineered products. Development of ATMPs for the treatment of retinal degeneration diseases has become a fast-growing field of research because it offers the potential to replace damaged retinal cells for long-term treatment of AMD. While gene therapy has shown encouraging results, its effectiveness for treatment of retinal disease may be hampered by the body’s response and problems associated with inflammation in the eye. In this mini-review, we focus on describing ATMP approaches including cell- and gene-based therapies for treatment of AMD along with their applications. We also aim to provide a brief overview of biological substitutes, also known as scaffolds, that can be used for delivery of cells to the target tissue and describe biomechanical properties required for optimal delivery. We describe different fabrication methods for preparing cell-scaffolds and explain how the use of artificial intelligence (AI) can aid with the process. We predict that combining AI with 3D bioprinting for 3D cell-scaffold fabrication could potentially revolutionise retinal tissue engineering and open up new opportunities for developing innovative platforms to deliver therapeutic agents to the target tissues.

Item Type: Article
Identifier: 10.3390/ph16040620
Keywords: age-macular degeneration disease; artificial intelligence; cell-therapy; drug delivery; gene-therapy; 3D printing; retinal degeneration disease; scaffold
Subjects: Medicine and health
Related URLs:
Depositing User: Hanieh Khalili
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2023 15:40
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 16:14


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