Pharmaceuticals in the freshwater invertebrate, Gammarus pulex, determined using pulverised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

Miller, Thomas H., McEneff, Gillian, Brown, Rebecca J., Owen, Stewart F., Bury, Nicolas R. and Barron, Leon P. (2015) Pharmaceuticals in the freshwater invertebrate, Gammarus pulex, determined using pulverised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Science of The Total Environment, 511. pp. 153-160. ISSN 0048-9697

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Abstract

The development, characterisation and application of a new analytical method for multi-residue PPCP determination in the freshwater amphipod, Gammarus pulex are presented. Analysis was performed using pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE), solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Qualitative method performance offered excellent limits of detection at < 20 ng g− 1 for 18 out of 29 compounds. For quantitative application, linearity and precision were considered acceptable for 10 compounds across the ng-μg g− 1 range (R2 ≥ 0.99; ≤ 20% relative standard deviation respectively). The method was applied to the analysis of G. pulex and river water sourced from six tributaries of the River Thames. Carbamazepine, diazepam, nimesulide, trimethoprim and warfarin were determined in G. pulex samples at low ng g− 1 (dry weight) concentrations across these sites. Temazepam and diclofenac were also detected, but were not quantifiable. Six pharmaceuticals were quantified in surface waters across the eight sites at concentrations ranging from 3 to 344 ng L− 1. The possibility for confirmatory detection and subsequent quantification of pharmaceutical residues in benthic organisms such as G. pulex will enable further understanding on the susceptibility and ecological effects of PPCPs in the aquatic environment.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Gammarus pulex; Environmental analysis; Emerging contaminants; Occurrence
Subjects: Law and criminal justice > Criminal justice > Forensic science
Depositing User: Gillian McEneff
Date Deposited: 09 Aug 2017 17:59
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2017 14:21
URI: http://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/3696

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