Closed-loop implantable therapeutic neuromodulation systems based on neurochemical monitoring

Mirza, Khalid, Golden, Caroline, Nikolic, Konstantin ORCID: and Toumazou, Christofer (2019) Closed-loop implantable therapeutic neuromodulation systems based on neurochemical monitoring. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13. p. 808. ISSN 1662-4548

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Closed-loop or intelligent neuromodulation allows adjustable, personalized neuromodulation which usually incorporates the recording of a biomarker, followed by implementation of an algorithm which decides the timing (when?) and strength (how much?) of stimulation. Closed-loop neuromodulation has been shown to have greater benefits compared to open-loop neuromodulation, particularly for therapeutic applications such as pharmacoresistant epilepsy, movement disorders and potentially for psychological disorders such as depression or drug addiction. However, an important aspect of the technique is selection of an appropriate, preferably neural biomarker. Neurochemical sensing can provide high resolution biomarker monitoring for various neurological disorders as well as offer deeper insight into neurological mechanisms. The chemicals of interest being measured, could be ions such as potassium (K+), sodium (Na+ ), calcium (Ca2+ ), chloride (Cl− ), hydrogen (H+ ) or neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin and glutamate. This review focusses on the different building blocks necessary for a neurochemical, closed-loop neuromodulation system including biomarkers, sensors and data processing algorithms. Furthermore, it also highlights the merits and drawbacks of using this biomarker modality.

Item Type: Article
Identifier: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00808
Keywords: neurochemical monitoring, closed loop neuromodulation, deep brain stimulation (DBS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), FSCV, chemometrics
Subjects: Construction and engineering > Biomedical engineering
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Depositing User: Konstantin Nikolic
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2021 12:16
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 16:05


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