Mitigation options for future water scarcity: a case study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago)

Reyes, Maria, Trifunovic, Nemanja, Sharma, Saroj, Behzadian, Kourosh ORCID:, Kapelan, Zoran and Kennedy, Maria (2017) Mitigation options for future water scarcity: a case study in Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Archipelago). Water, 9 (8). p. 597. ISSN 2073-4441

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Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos Archipelago), like many other tourist islands, is currently experiencing an exponential increase in tourism and local population growth, jeopardizing current and future water supply. An accurate assessment of the future water supply/demand balance is crucial to capital investment for water infrastructure. This paper aims to present five intervention strategies, which are suggested to solve the future water crisis. The strategies combined include environmentally sustainable options such as rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and water demand management, as well as desalination. These strategies were evaluated under four population growth scenarios (very fast, fast, moderate and slow growths) by using several Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) including water demand, leakage levels, total costs, energy consumption, rainwater delivered and greywater recycled. Moreover, it also aims to develop a methodology for similar islands, using the WaterMet2 modelling approach, a tool for integrated of sustainable-based performance of urban water systems. The results obtained show that by 2044 only a small portion of the future water demand can be covered assuming business as usual. Therefore, desalination seems to be the most viable option in order to mitigate the lack of water at the end of the planning period considering the growth trends. However, strategies comprising more environmentally friendly alternatives may be sufficient, but only under slow population growth scenarios.

Item Type: Article
Identifier: 10.3390/w9080597
Additional Information: © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Keywords: intervention strategy; key performance indicators; water demand prediction; water scarcity; WaterMet2
Subjects: Construction and engineering > Civil and environmental engineering
Construction and engineering
Depositing User: Kourosh Behzadian
Date Deposited: 06 Oct 2017 10:05
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 15:54


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