Microbiological evaluation of the indigenous fermented condiment okpeye available at various retail markets in the south-eastern region of Nigeria

Agunwah, I.M., Ogueke, C.C, Nwosu, J.N and Anyogu, Amarachukwu ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9652-7728 (2024) Microbiological evaluation of the indigenous fermented condiment okpeye available at various retail markets in the south-eastern region of Nigeria. Heliyon, 10 (3). ISSN 2405-8440

[thumbnail of PDF/A]
14. Okpehe.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview


In Africa, indigenous fermented condiments contribute to food security as a low-cost source of protein. Okpeye is an indigenous fermented condiment produced from Prosopis africana seeds. The reliance on spontaneous fermentation processes and unhygienic practices during production often
results in the contamination of the final product with microbial hazards. A microbiological evaluation of 18 commercial samples of okpeye purchased from six markets in two cities in southeastern Nigeria was conducted. Fifty-nine (59) bacteria were isolated and identified at the species level by phenotyping and sequencing the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Bacillus (47.4 %) and Staphylococcus (42.3 %) were the predominant bacterial genera in okpeye. Overall,
B. amyloliquefaciens and S. simulans were the most frequently occurring bacteria and were present in all samples. In addition, B. cereus was isolated in samples obtained from all markets. Other bacterial species included B. velezensis, Oceanobacillus caeni, S. cohnii, Escherichia fergusonni and Vagacoccus lutrae. The B. cereus isolates (10) were screened for the presence of 8 enterotoxin genes
(hblA, hblC, hblD, nheA, nheB, nheC, cytK, entFM) and one emetic gene (cesB). The non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheABC) and haemolytic enterotoxin (hblABD) complexes were present in 70 % and 50 % of B. cereus respectively. The positive rate of cytK and entFM genes was 70 %, while the cesB gene was 30 %. Antibiotic susceptibility assessment showed that most of the isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin but resistant to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. These findings highlight the need for further controls to reduce contamination with potential pathogenic bacteria in indigenous fermented condiments such as okpeye. There is also a need to educate producers regarding hygienic practices to safeguard public
health and food security.

Item Type: Article
Identifier: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2024.e25493
Keywords: Alkaline fermentation; Bacillus spp.; Fermented condiments; Okpeye; Staphylococcus spp
Subjects: Natural sciences > Cell and molecular biology
Natural sciences
Depositing User: Amarachukwu Anyogu
Date Deposited: 19 Feb 2024 10:26
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2024 10:26
URI: https://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/11200


Downloads per month over past year

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item