Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Obersby, Derek, Chappell, David, Dunnett, Andrew and Tsiami, Amalia A. (2013) Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition, 109 (5). pp. 785-794. ISSN 0007-1145

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Abstract

There is strong evidence indicating that elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a major independent biomarker and/or a contributor to chronic conditions, such as CVD. A deficiency of vitamin B12 can elevate homocysteine. Vegetarians are a group of the population who are potentially at greater risk of vitamin B12 deficiency than omnivores. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to appraise a range of studies that compared the homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels of vegetarians and omnivores. The search methods employed identified 443 entries, from which, by screening using set inclusion and exclusion criteria, six eligible cohort case studies and eleven cross-sectional studies from 1999 to 2010 were revealed, which compared concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 of omnivores, lactovegetarians or lacto-ovovegetarians and vegans. Of the identified seventeen studies (3230 participants), only two studies reported that vegan concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 did not differ from omnivores. The present study confirmed that an inverse relationship exists between plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12, from which it can be concluded that the usual dietary source of vitamin B12 is animal products and those who choose to omit or restrict these products are destined to become vitamin B12 deficient. At present, the available supplement, which is usually used for fortification of food, is the unreliable cyanocobalamin. A well-designed study is needed to investigate a reliable and suitable supplement to normalise the elevated plasma tHcy of a high majority of vegetarians. This would fill the gaps in the present nutritional scientific knowledge.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Authors 2013
Subjects: Medicine and health > Clinical medicine
Medicine and health > Nutrition
Depositing User: Rod Pow
Date Deposited: 09 Sep 2014 15:10
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 16:10
URI: http://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/928

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