Antimicrobial action of carvacrol at different stages of dual-species biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

Roller, S., Naidu, A. S., Murray, D. B. and Knowles, J. R. (2005) Antimicrobial action of carvacrol at different stages of dual-species biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71 (2). pp. 797-803. ISSN 0099-2240

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Abstract

The effects of carvacrol, a natural biocide, on dual-species biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were investigated with a constant-depth film fermentor. Biofilm development reached a quasi-steady state in 12 days at 25°C with S. aureus predominance (≈99%). Cryosectional analysis detected viable S. aureus and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium at depths of 320 and 180 μm from the film surface, respectively. Carvacrol pulses (1.0 mmol/h) inhibited S. aureus by 2.5 log CFU/biofilm during the early stages of film formation, ultimately causing a significant reduction (P < 0.001) of the staphylococcal population at quasi-steady state. Initial carvacrol pulsing elicited a 3 log CFU/biofilm reduction in viable S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and additional periodic carvacrol pulses instigated significant inhibition of salmonellae (1 to 2 log CFU/biofilm) during biofilm development. Carvacrol pulsing reduced protein levels fivefold (P < 0.001) during initial biofilm development. Comparative studies with a peroxide-based commercial sanitizer (Spor-Klenz RTU) revealed that this commercial sanitizer was more biocidal than carvacrol during early biofilm development. When the biofilm reached quasi-steady state, however, periodic pulses with 1 mmol of carvacrol per h (P = 0.021) elicited a significantly higher inhibition than Spor-Klenz RTU (P = 0.772). Dual-species microcolonies formed under the influence of continuously fed low carvacrol concentrations (1.0 mmol/h) but failed to develop into a mature quasi-steady-state biofilm and did not reach any stage of film formation in the presence of high concentrations (5.0 mmol/h). These data show that carvacrol is an effective natural intervention to control dual-species biofilm formation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Carvacrol; Dual-species biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium
Subjects: Medicine and health > Microbiology
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Depositing User: Rod Pow
Date Deposited: 04 Jul 2012 13:36
Last Modified: 10 Dec 2015 15:51
URI: http://repository.uwl.ac.uk/id/eprint/87

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